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Definitions: Something not being what it claims to be, a fake or false.
Synonyms: sham, fraudulent, fictitious.
Antonyms: genuine, true, real.
Examples: The governing body found his credentials to be spurious and he was fired.
Origins: Latin spurius meaning illegitmate, false. At one time it meant to be born out of wedlock.
Definitions: When words can be omitted from speech or writing that are unnecessary or can be understood from context.
Origins: Greek elleipein meaning leave out.
Definitions: To reject, discalim or disavow.
Synonyms: refute, reject, cancel, invalidate.
Antonyms: own, embrace, concede.
Examples: He repudiated all responsibility for the terrible events that happened.
Origins: Latin repudiatus meaning to cast off, reject or scorn.
Definitions: Something that can be used to set a standard or an example for future actions.
Synonyms: measure, forerunner,
Examples: No one knows what to do in this case, there is no precedent.
Tips: collocates with ‘set a’.
Origins: Latin praecedentum meaning go before.
Definitions: To be keep separate or apart from others, usually for the purpose of isolating an illness.
Synonyms: restraint, detention.
Examples: If you take your dog abroad with you it will probably have to go into quarantine for a while.
Tips: collocates with ‘be in’.
Definitions: To be self-pitying and sentimental.
Synonyms: sentimental, emotional, mawkish.
Antonyms: Unemotional,undemonstrative, unsentimental.
Examples: He has been so maudlin recently that everyone is trying to avoid hanging out with him.
Origins: Church Latin from Magdalena – the weeping image.
Definitions: Having a certain energy, stylishness and confidence that attracts attention.
Synonyms: vibrant, vivid, gregarious.
Antonyms: dull, restrained, unappealing.
Examples: Her flamboyant designs attracted a large clientele.
Origins: French, flambe meaning a flame or a blaze.
Definitions: A feeling, a smell or a sensation that spreads out from an original source.
Synonyms: exude, emit, radiate.
Antonyms: absorb, sink, decline.
Examples: She is a lovely person, kindness just emanates from her.
Origins: Latin, emanat to flow out.
Definitions: Politeness, refinement or respectability to an exaggerated degree.
Synonyms: proper, polite, respectable.
Antonyms: barbaric, improper, vulgar.
Examples: His genteel behaviour struck her as fake and she did not really trust him.
Tips: Mostly used with men.
Origins: French, gentil meaning well-born.
Definitions: A crowd, or mob of people behaving in a disorderly manner. Also used against people of lower classes.
Synonyms: horde, pack, gang, mob.
Antonyms: nobility, elite.
Examples: The rabble quickly dispersed when the police arrived.
Origins: Middle English meaning to gabble.