Infest (verb)

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Definitions:
(verb) (of insects or animals) be present (in a place or site) in large numbers, typically so as to cause damage or disease.

Synonyms:
invade, pervade, inundate, permeate

Examples:
We called in an exterminator because the house was infested with ants, The barn was infested with rats., When we first moved in, the apartment was infested with cockroaches., The shark infested waters of South Africa.

Austere (adjective)

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Definitions:
Severe or strict in appearance or manner, unsmiling; suggesting physical hardship; plain and without luxury.

Synonyms:
severe, unadorned, simple, stringent, solemn, strict, harsh, forbidding, stern, Plain, ascetic

Antonyms:
luxurious, self-indulgent

Examples:
With the war abroad, many families faced increased austerity in their home lives., The children were nervous in the presence of the austere and intimidating instructor., His austere manner made it hard for Charles to meet new people and make friends.

Tips:
Austere comes from the Greek austeros, which means “dry or harsh.” Think of barren land with nothing but dirt, and think of harsh conditions. The noun austerity tends to denote something that is severe in discipline or self-denial, especially in economic terms.

Aloof (adjective)

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Definitions:
Remote in manner, uninvolved or unwilling to become involved with other people or events. Physically remote, distant or apart. Not interested or involved, usually because you don’t approve of what’s happening.

Synonyms:
standoffish, remote, apart, haughty, indifferent, distant, detached

Antonyms:
social

Examples:
Jan held himself aloof from the bitter squabbles among his coworkers., A lone deer stood at the forest’s edge, aloof from the rest of the herd., I went to the party hoping to make new friends, but most of the people were rather aloof.

Tips:
Although the exact origin of aloof is unknown, it most likely came from Dutch te loef, “to steer clear of something.” Aloof often, though not always, carries a negative connotation because of the implied feeling of superiority or arrogance. For a memory trick, note how aloof sounds and looks like “al roof.” Now visualize a man name Al on a roof at a party. He wants to separate himself from everyone because of his aloof nature–Al is standoffish and wants to be away from people, so he hides on the roof.

Whim (noun)

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Definitions:
a sudden desire, wish or change of mind, especially one that is unsual or cannot be reasonably explained.

Synonyms:
impulse, urge, notion, fancy

Antonyms:
reality, certainty, fact, truth, actuality

Examples:
The police officer acted on a whim, not thinking before he violently slammed the suspect to the ground. (impulse)

Origins:
whim 1641, “pun or play on words” shortened from whimwham “fanciful object” (q.v). Meaning “sudden notion, fancy or idea” first recorded 1697, probably a shortened formed of “whimsy”

Brink (noun)

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Definitions:
an extreme edge of land before a steep or vertical slope ;typically a disastrous or unwelcome event : a point at which something, typically an unwelcome or disastrous event, is about to happen.

Synonyms:
;, edge, margin, lip, verge, point., border, threshold, rim

Examples:
Extreme stress had driven him to the brink of a nervous breakdown., Scientists are on the brink of (= extremely close to) a major new discovery., She was standing right on the brink of the gorge.

Tips:
Brink denotes the edge of something very steep or an abrupt division between land and water (: the brink of the river), or metaphorically the very final limit before an abrupt change (: on the brink of disaster).

Glib (adjective)

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Definitions:
(of words or a speaker) fluent but insincere and shallow.speaking or spoken in a confident way, but without careful thought or honesty.

Synonyms:
slick, pat, neat, plausable, smooth-talking

Antonyms:
sincere, thoughtful, inarticulate

Examples:
How could he have been so glib about such a traumatic event? No one was convinced by his glib explanation.

Whilom (adjective)

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Definitions:
The definition of whilom is something former , or that once was.

Synonyms:
late, old, once, past, former,

Antonyms:
current, ongoing, present

Examples:
She pointedly ignored the whilom friends who had turned on her.

Tips:
The adjective is one of four- the others being erstwhile, quondam, and umquhile, with the same meaning: formerly in the past. All are unfamiliar and un- English in appearance, though ‘whilom’ is not the least odd. None is common but whilom is rare enough today, to the extent that current dictionaries mark it as archaic.

Origins:
from Old English ‘huilum, dative pluralof whil (“while”)

Fickle (adjective)

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Definitions:
Marked by erratic changeableness in affections, or attachments, liable to sudden unpredictable change.

Synonyms:
impulsive, flightly

Antonyms:
loyal

Examples:
When my fickle friend cancelled lunch for the third time, I decided to give up trying to get together with her., The fickle artist kept changing her mind on what to paint., I think he is too fickle-natured to be an effective leader; he never commits to anything., We need someone who is steadfast and leads with conviction, not someone who wavers and is fickle.

Tips:
Fickle comes from the Old English ficol, “deceitful.” To be fickle is to be willing to change your mind without much thought to the consequences. If you love something one day, and the next day you decide you don’t care for it anymore, you’re fickle. Political candidates can be said to be fickle if they change their stance frequently on issues.

Wanton (adjective)

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Definitions:
Having no concern for the rights, feelings, or safety of others. (of something bad, such as damage, cruelty, waste) exteme and showing no care at all

Synonyms:
deliberate, wilful, malicious

Antonyms:
observant, wise, justifiable

Examples:
Jim’s wanton disregard to others was obvious when he drove home drunk. Although Harold is not a nice boy, I cannot believe he has been accused of wanton cruelty toward his neighbor’s dog

Origins:
Middle English “wantowen” ‘rebellious , lacking discipline’, from “wan” – ‘badly’ + Old English “togen” ‘ trained’

Aficionado (noun)

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Definitions:
A person who is very knowledgeable, enthusiastic about an activity or subject.

Synonyms:
pundit

Examples:
My dad is member of a club for model railway aficionados., A good friend of mine is an aficionado of French films., Faye is a Harry Potter aficionado, who has seen all the movies several times.